Energy efficient supermarkets - Supermarkets
Here we collect all documents with a focus on energy efficiency in Grocery Stores.
Verification of how the choice of air filters in stores affects particle concentrations in indoor air and ventilation system electrical efficiency
Measurements have been made in two grocery stores to investigate how the choice of ventilation filter affects the use of electrical energy, the air quality in exhaust air and the indoor environment in the store. The results show the large cost savings can be made both in terms of operation and maintenance (costs for electricity to the fans and costs for filters). The electricity use for fan operation depends on what the system design etc. looks like. For the stores studied, this means a total saving of approximately 6 000 SEK/year respectively 12 000 SEK/year.
To avoid unnecessary cooling
There are several items in a grocery store that do not need to be refrigerated but are often sold from a refrigerated counter anyway. In this project, some grocery’s that are cooled unnecessarily have been identified: eggs, drinks (PET 0.5l) and snus. They found out how much energy was used to cool them. They also examined how sales are affected if the grocery no longer is sold as cooled.
Evaluation of alternatives to R404A – the most common refrigerant in Swedish grocery stores
A theoretical model was used to investigate some alternative refrigerants for R404A in a freezer application in a grocery store, and the results indicate that energy consumption will be better with all the options.
Doors on refrigerated cabinets for reduced energy consumption and improved indoor climate
A store retrofitted doors on all its refrigerated counters. The cooling capacity demand in the cooling counters decreased by about 40 % during the day, after doors were installed. The electricity requirement in the cooling system decreased by about 15 % after the door installation. By making changes in the cooling system, you can also reduce the electricity demand by about 40 %.
Heat recovery in refrigeration system by applying heat pump
The report describes a demonstration regarding how the energy use in an existing supermarket can be reduced by recycling the heat released from one of the supermarket's refrigeration system. During the measurement period, the amount of purchased district heating was lowered by about 50% compared to the same period last year. The COP of the heat pump was around 4.
Energy efficient supermarkets with increased knowledge and energy monitoring
This project has through measurements produced key figures for various measurement areas in the stores, which were followed up though further measurements. The possibility of engaging store staff in work with energy monitoring has been evaluated by installing energy monitoring systems and in this case, it was concluded that the installed monitoring systems must be user friendly.
Energy efficient ventilation in stores – recirculated air
Measurements has been performed in order to verify the energy saving potential for comfort heating and comfort cooling when using recirculated air, compared to ventilation with outdoor air, while a good indoor environment is achieved regarding, among other things, air quality. The results from the measurements showed a large saving potential by using recirculated air, while good air quality was achieved both with and without recirculated air.
Doors on open display cabinets and modification of the refrigeration system in a supermarket
To take advantage of the energy reduction potential that retrofitting doors on refrigerated counters entails, other energy efficiency measures were implemented in the refrigeration system in a grocery store. After the measures, the cooling demand of the milk room decreased by as much as 60 % and the demand of the entire cooling system decreased by 50 %.
Cleaning of heat exchangers in display cabinets
Dirt and dust are drawn into cooling batteries during operation and sometimes food packages break so that the content drips down into the counter. Contamination can cause decreased efficiency in the counter’s cooling coil, reduced air flow and clogging of drains, which can lead to an increased energy demand for cooling the air in the counter and to ruined food due to inadequate cooling. A checklist for washing cooling batteries has been produced.
LED conversion of refrigerated counters
This is a guide how to make a safe and correct LED conversion of the refrigerated counter regarding electrical safety and EMC and still be able to claim compatibility with LVD and EMC-directive. Laws and directives referred to in the report may have been updated and may not be applicable.
Small-scale biogas plant at large grocery stores
The possibility of establishing a small-scale biogas plant at larger grocery stores to handle the food waste that arises in stores has been investigated. If technical, economic, and environmental aspects are considered, the assessment is that it is better to transport the grocery store’s food waste to a digestion plant nearby.
Energy from the tenant's cooling system is used in the property owner's heating system - a contribution to increased energy efficiency
In this pre-study we aim to shed the light and different perspectives for actors on how to achieve increased energy efficiency between tenant and landlord by energy contracts or energy agreement. This may lead to increased energy efficiency, better use of energy and reduce environmental impact.
Design of Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets based on Best Available Technology
The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate three different system solutions for food refrigeration and how they should best be designed to achieve the highest possible energy efficiency with a focus on the technical potential. The results show that dimensioning components, and the possibilities for regulation in a large work area, have a greater effect on energy performance than the choice between the three optimized cooling systems examined. It is important to dimension the components optimally for the operating conditions that are most common, in terms of hours/year.
Alternative to R404A
This report presents possible alternatives for phasing out R404A, as R404A will have a sales ban in 2019 and a service ban 2020 - the most common refrigerant in stores, commercial kitchens and small food industries today.
Alternativ till R 404A (only in Swedish) (860.16 KB)
Differentiated temperatures in store freezers
The temperature in freezers in food stores should be -18 °C, which is suitable for many foods but not all. The low temperature retards processes that deteriorate the food. The aim of this project is to suggest foods suitable for storage at -12 °C and to calculate the electricity savings in a specific store and nationally. To summarise, it is possible to save electricity by increasing the storage temperature of frozen vegetables, but these are moderate and should be preceded by studies of the effect on the food quality.
Certified energy consultants for grocery stores
This pre-study has investigated the conditions for a voluntary, unaccredited certification of energy consultants for grocery stores. The general conclusion is that the certification of energy consultants for grocery stores is feasible, but the customers (store owners) need to request certification in their procurement contracts in order for it to enter the market.
Optimal refrigeration temperatures in Swedish supermarkets
One way to reduce food waste can be to lower the temperature in the cold chain so that the temperatures are optimal. The National Food Administration's proposal is that the storage temperature for refrigerated goods should be a maximum of 4 ° C. This feasibility study has investigated consequences it could entail with regard to increased energy use and the need for investments. The results show, among other things, the importance of all industries along the food cold chain / value chain having to work more and better together towards common goals.
Optimala kyltemperaturer (only in Swedish) (707.19 KB)
Priority actions in existing food premises for increased energy efficiency
The aim of the feasibility study has been to produce a prioritized compilation of the most important measures for energy efficiency in food premises. The results show that energy efficiency does not have to be expensive - much can be done quickly and at a low cost. Usually no major investment is required in components or equipment.
Profitability potential for self-produced energy in grocery stores
To bring down the overall cost of energy is an important issue for all food stores. The most important thing is to work to reduce energy consumption through different types of efficiencies. In this study we have looked at various options for self-produced energy and calculated their profitability. The results show that it is profitable for large supermarkets to produce their own electricity. If electricity prices rise and / or installation costs drop improvement potential rapidly, even at moderate changes.
Plug-in compared with central cooling unit
The purpose of this study is to compare and define new plug-in solutions for in-store cold with central cooling. The decommissioning of refrigerant such as R404A are a driving force to look at plug-in solutions. There is a risk that the phasing out of R404A will result in investment in coolers with inferior energy performance. Here, the work with eco-design requirements and energy labeling has an important role to play.
Choice of filter classes in the ventilation system for supermarkets
This study has investigated the question of how the choice of filter classes in the ventilation system affects airborne particle levels in the supermarket. As far as air quality in terms of particulate concentrations in the supermarket air is concerned, the performance of ventilation units is more important than the choice of filter class. A lower filter class reduces the electrical energy use. Over the whole country, in Sweden, this represents a potential saving of about 45 GWh of electricity.
The concept supermarket approaching zero
The purpose of the project has been to compile knowledge on how an existing grocery store can be renovated to reduce its energy use so that it approaches zero. Proposals for energy efficiency measures were developed in the categories of refidgeration, ventilation, heating and lighting. If all proposals were implemented, the theoretical savings potential was 60-65 percent.
Read more about: The concept supermarket approaching zero (only in Swedish)
Incentive-based contracts for foods premises/premises owners
Most often, it is ownership conditions that prevent solutions with heat recovery in food premises. Ventilation systems including heat production and distribution are owned by the property owner, while systems for cooling and heating food are owned by the tenant. If both parties believe that they can benefit from energy efficiency measures, more energy agreements will be able to be concluded.
Dehumidification of air in supermarkets
Dehumidification of air in supermarkets has been identified as one way to reduce the energy use in supermarkets. The result shows that many larger supermarkets in Sweden include comfort cooling in their ventilation systems. This, in combination with that more display cabinets are equipped with doors and the use of ventilation with recirculated air contributes to that dehumidification of air is not considered to be a problem.
Avfuktning av luft i butiker (only in Swedish) (718.59 KB)
Online measurements in supermarkets
The feasibility study aims to provide a basis for a project application where a general requirements specification for energy monitoring systems in stores is produced. Which key figures and other parameters are interesting to measure and for whom do you measure the different numbers? A measurement must have a receiver and the result must be presented so that the receiver understands it.
This feasibility study resulted in the project Energieffektiva butiker med ökad kunskap och energiuppföljning
Preliminary study of energy optimization of dehumidification in grocery stores
Energy for refrigerators and freezers account for a significant proportion of grocery stores total energy use. This prestudy shows, among other things, that the conditions differ, depending on the size of the store. Large grocery stores often have the air supply temperature chilled during summer while there is no air conditioning at all in the smaller stores. This means that several operating conditions should be investigated.
Refrigerated display cases - Measurements of temperatures
Measurements in the store’s refrigerated display cases has been conducted in order to check if the store’s temperature sensors measure accurately. The results show that temperatures in refrigerated display cases is a complex issue. There are large variations from point to point.
Evaluation of an innovative heat exchanger in an open display cabinet
In this study, a new innovative type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger has been tested and demonstrated in an open display cabinet at a supermarket. The results from this study show that there is a potential of energy savings by using the new type of heat exchanger in display cabinets at supermarkets instead of conventional cooling coils.
The possibility of raising the freezer storage temperature for frozen goods in stores
In Sweden, approximately 7 TWh is consumed annually for cooling food, which constitutes approximately five percent of Sweden's total electricity consumption. The stores' share of electricity consumption is smaller than that of households, but is still of the order of TWh. This corresponds to annual costs in the billion class. Therefore, there is reason to examine this consumption and whether it can be reduced.
Innovative heat exchanger in refrigerated counters provides more efficient energy use in stores
RISE has evaluated an innovative heat exchanger in refrigerated counters for more efficient energy use in stores. The evaluation shows that there are great savings potentials by replacing the existing conventional cooling batteries in the stores' refrigerated counters with this new type of heat exchanger.
Energy from cooling systems provides increased energy efficiency
With heat recovered from grocery stores' refrigeration systems, it is possible to reduce energy use, increase sustainability and reduce costs for the trader and the property where grocery stores are located as tenants. In society, between the actors, more efficient ways of designing, building and managing the property portfolio are required.
Save energy and money - coordinate energy systems
The project shows great savings potential both in terms of energy and finances. The interesting thing is that the savings are intended to be achieved by (energy) managing the existing energy use that each user currently has.
Spara energi och pengar – samordna energisystemen (only in Swedish)
Doors on the store's refrigerated counter affect the consumer
Doors on refrigerators in shops drastically reduce energy consumption. But does it make customers shop less? Ulla Lindberg, doctoral student at SIIR, Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, at the University of Borås, examines customers' experiences and behaviors in stores when they buy chilled food.
Dörrar på butikens kyldisk påverkar konsumenten (only in Swedish)
Heat recovery with heat pump from food refrigeration system in store
The purpose of the project was to carry out a demonstration plant to make energy efficient an existing grocery store in two parts. The first part was to carry out a number of different energy-efficient measures in one of the store's cooling systems, to reduce the need for cooling and the need for purchased electricity to power the system. The second part was to make the store more energy efficient by recovering the heat that is released from the rebuilt cooling system for heating the premises and domestic hot water.
The store that aims for zero energy
Doors on refrigerated counters and smart use of waste heat have reduced energy consumption in Ica City Knalleland by almost 80 percent. Soon, district heating can be completely turned off in the system, which is transferable to most stores.
Butiken som siktar på nollenergi (only in Swedish)
LED conversion for refrigerator and freezer furniture
In many refrigerators and freezers today, conventional fluorescent tubes of the T8 type are used as light sources. On the market today, there are replacement LED fluorescent lamps that fit into the existing luminaires in refrigerators and freezers. An exchange of existing fluorescent lamps to those of the LED type provides an energy saving both in terms of direct electrical energy for lighting and also indirectly as the LED fluorescent lamps generate less heat and thus reduce the cooling need in the refrigerated and freezing furniture.
Chip in food for less waste
Every year, we throw 1.2 million tonnes of food in Sweden. Some fully edible, only that the best before date has passed. SIK (Institute for food and biotechnology) is a solution on the tracks - a chip on the packaging that gives the food the right status.
Chip i mat för mindre svinn (only in Swedish) (251.91 KB)
Doors on open refrigerated counters and adaptation of refrigeration systems in stores
The task within this BeLivs project is to demonstrate how the energy use in an existing grocery store can be reduced by putting doors on existing refrigerated counters. The store included in the demonstration has been carefully measured both before and after the measures taken to get real facts about how much energy has actually been saved. The initial estimate of a reduction in energy demand by about 30% would prove to be superior in reality.
Washing of batteries in refrigerator and freezer furniture
The need to clean refrigerator and freezer furniture has been the subject of a BeLivs study, which focused on the profitability of washing the dishes' batteries. Direct and indirect benefits have been analyzed together with service companies and store owners.
What effect would lowered temperature in the cold chain have on food waste?
Every year, approximately one million tonnes of food waste is generated in the Swedish food chain. Part of this is food waste, i.e. food waste that could have been avoided, food that was thrown away but could have been eaten if it had been handled differently. The aim of this project is to investigate how food waste at the retail and consumer level would be affected by a reduced temperature in the cold chain. The project is divided into three parts, a calculation model, a literature review and an interview study.
Energy efficient cooling systems in grocery stores
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden has investigated how three different system solutions for food cooling should be designed to achieve the highest possible energy efficiency with a focus on technical potential. These have been defined as "Best Available Technology" (BAT). The goal is for increased knowledge of the system to lead to increased energy performance in the cooling system of the future.
Overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in grocery stores - knowledge of behavior and technology
With available refrigeration technology, we have been able to create a trade in fresh produce that has not been possible before. But it places high demands on our resources, globally 17% of all electricity is used for the refrigeration sector, which also includes air conditioning. The question is, how can we make energy efficient, with the consumer in focus?
Exploring barriers to energy efficiency in supermarkets
This thesis is multidisciplinary, and the research has been broadened from studying measured and perceived comfort parameters in supermarkets to incorporating qualitative studies with a clearer and deeper interest in consumers’ perceptions and behaviors. In this thesis, findings from the cold environment of chilled food display cabinets, either with doors or
without, are discussed and tangible commodities are used to illustrate how ‘details’ such as doors on cabinets matter to consumers. The consumers are of the main interest since they make up the businesses. The aim of this thesis is to gain knowledge of how to improve energy efficiency and the store layout for chilled groceries by adding consumer insights. Four specific papers contribute to this thesis’ aim of overcoming specific challenges faced by retail grocery stores as regards energy efficiency.