Energy efficient supermarkets - Refrigerants
The most common refrigerants (HFC refrigerants in air conditioners, refrigerators and freezers) are some of the most powerful greenhouse gases, and they have a long life span. If we are to succeed in achieving the climate goals, we must reduce the use of HFC refrigerants. The very sharp and rapid increase in all types of refrigeration that can be foreseen in developing countries, will mean a large increase in HFCs.
Within EU, the F-gas regulation applies, which means the decommissioning of refrigerants that contribute greatly to the greenhouse effect, such as the most common HFCs. From 2020, it is forbidden to sell and install the most common refrigerant R404A as its impact on the greenhouse effect is very large (1 kg R404A corresponds to 3900 kg carbon dioxide). In the long run, all HFCs (F-gases) will be phased out. The refrigerants that can replace R404A without the need to rebuild the cooling systems are F-gases with a lower impact on the greenhouse effect. These have lower cooling performance and will in the long run also be covered by the F-gas regulation and banned in the EU. The long-term alternatives are natural refrigerants such as propane (flammable), carbon dioxide (high pressure). Also, Ammonia (toxic) but it is mostly used in industry at cooling capacity’s over a few hundred kW and up.
The supermarkets that have not yet been rebuilt still have the opportunity to install an energy efficient cooling system to achieve low energy consumption in the future. It will be cost effective to seize the opportunity and build a good system from the start.
Energy efficiency potential in professional kitchens - Fast Food Restaurant
Energy measurements and energy survey were performed in a Max Hamburger restaurant and nine energy saving measures were proposed. The greatest energy savings are heat recovery of the ventilation air, which is estimated to reduce the total district heating demand by about two thirds. An energy saving of just over 10 % can be obtained by minimizing the operating times of the grills. If all nine measures are implemented, the savings will be about 20 % of the electricity and just under 90 % of the district heating, or 42 % of the total purchased energy.
Evaluation of alternatives to R404A – the most common refrigerant in Swedish grocery stores
A theoretical model was used to investigate some alternative refrigerants for R404A in a freezer application in a grocery store, and the results indicate that energy consumption will be better with all the options.
Flammable Refrigerants – A survey of barriers and how to overcome them
A document which compiles the rules applicable to safe handling of flammable refrigerants and which can be approved as a guideline by the Swedish authorities, and to encourage the development of efficient energy use in food premises and thus contribute to national energy and environmental objectives has been produced. The document has been used in the development of Swedish Refrigeration norm for units with flammable refrigerants.
Design of Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets based on Best Available Technology
The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate three different system solutions for food refrigeration and how they should best be designed to achieve the highest possible energy efficiency with a focus on the technical potential. The results show that dimensioning components, and the possibilities for regulation in a large work area, have a greater effect on energy performance than the choice between the three optimized cooling systems examined. It is important to dimension the components optimally for the operating conditions that are most common, in terms of hours/year.
Improved energy behavior in commercial kitchens through digital support with measurement and feedback
This prestudy which was completed in February 2018, specifies how a future implementation project will be set up in terms of technical solution (measurment and application/ interface) as well as testing and evaluation.
Alternative to R404A
This report presents possible alternatives for phasing out R404A, as R404A will have a sales ban in 2019 and a service ban 2020 - the most common refrigerant in stores, commercial kitchens and small food industries today.
Alternativ till R 404A (only in Swedish) (860.16 KB)
Differentiated temperatures in store freezers
The temperature in freezers in food stores should be -18 °C, which is suitable for many foods but not all. The low temperature retards processes that deteriorate the food. The aim of this project is to suggest foods suitable for storage at -12 °C and to calculate the electricity savings in a specific store and nationally. To summarise, it is possible to save electricity by increasing the storage temperature of frozen vegetables, but these are moderate and should be preceded by studies of the effect on the food quality.
Priority actions in existing food premises for increased energy efficiency
The aim of the feasibility study has been to produce a prioritized compilation of the most important measures for energy efficiency in food premises. The results show that energy efficiency does not have to be expensive - much can be done quickly and at a low cost. Usually no major investment is required in components or equipment.
Plug-in compared to central cooling unit
The purpose of this study is to compare and define new plug-in solutions for in-store refrigeration with central cooling. The decommissioning of refrigerant such as R404A are a driving force to look at plug-in solutions. There is a risk that the phase out of R404A will result in an investment in coolers with inferior energy performance. Here, the work with eco-design requirements and energy labeling has an important role to play.
The possibility of raising the freezer storage temperature for frozen goods in stores
In Sweden, approximately 7 TWh is consumed annually for cooling food, which constitutes approximately five percent of Sweden's total electricity consumption. The stores' share of electricity consumption is smaller than that of households, but is still of the order of TWh. This corresponds to annual costs in the billion class. Therefore, there is reason to examine this consumption and whether it can be reduced.
Doors on the store's refrigerated counter affect the consumer
Doors on refrigerators in supermarkets drastically reduce energy consumption. But does it make customers shop less? Ulla Lindberg, doctoral student at SIIR, Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, at the University of Borås, examines customers' experiences and behaviors in stores when they buy chilled food.
Dörrar på butikens kyldisk påverkar konsumenten (only in Swedish)
Energy efficient cooling systems in grocery stores
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden has investigated how three different system solutions for food cooling should be designed to achieve the highest possible energy efficiency with a focus on technical potential. These have been defined as "Best Available Technology" (BAT). The goal is for increased knowledge of the system to lead to increased energy performance in the cooling system of the future.
Energy efficiency potentials in professional kitchens - Restaurant kitchens
Energy measurements and energy mapping were performed in restaurants and kitchens at IKEA and six energy-saving measures were proposed. The greatest energy savings are given to a rebuild of the cooling system that can reduce electricity consumption by 40 MWh / year or 6% of the kitchen's total electricity consumption. If all analyzed measures are implemented, the restaurant is estimated to be able to save 14% of the electricity for the kitchen and restaurant.