Skip to main content
RISE logo

Pilling and surface fuzzing for fabrics according to SS-EN ISO 12945-2

Pilling is a phenomenon that occurs during use and washing. Pills are tangled fibres/fibre ends
that are stuck to the fabric surface. As we use and move in our clothes, abrasion/rubbing occurs on different surfaces, which leads to that fibres/fibre ends are pulled up from the surface and fuzzing and pills can appear. Textile materials have different ability to form pills and fuzzing, depending on the nature of the fibre/yarn, the fabric's construction and if finished.

At our Textile laboratory we have several Martindale machines for testing of pilling and fuzzing.
The method concerns testing of woven and knitted fabrics (not heavy knitwear)


The method aims to analyse the propensity of the fabric to form pills/fuzz.

Pilling is a surface defect that have a negative effect of the appearance over time, which is why one would prefer to avoid and or delay it. By testing the pilling/fuzzing resistance of a material, one gets an insight into how easily pills and fuzzing are formed on the material.


The test is carried out in a Martindale apparatus where circular specimens (about 16 cm in diameter) are rubbed under load against either a wool standard fabric, against itself or against both. The motion is performed according to a specific pattern, a lissajous figure. The load is either 155g or 415g depending on whether the material is knitted or woven. Upholstery fabrics are always tested with the higher load and only against the standard wool fabric.
The test specimens are assessed at predetermined number of rubs, specified in the method.
The final assessment stage is a maximum of 7,000 rubs. Both the number of pills and the amount of fuzz are assessed, using a 5-rating scale.


A report in Swedish or English with the received results.


Please order via the contact persons below or e-mail the completed order form.

Orderform_Pilling_SS-EN ISO 12945-2



Textiles - Determination of fabric propensity to surface fuzzing and to pilling - Martindale method according to SS-EN ISO 12945-2

Innovation area

Testing, Textile


SS-EN ISO 12947-1

SS-EN ISO 12945-2


Price on tender

Delivery time

Normal delivery time is 5-10 working days. A more accurate delivery time is stated in the order confirmation which is sent after received order and test material.


No preparation needed

Helena Hjärtnäs

Contact person

Helena Hjärtnäs


Read more about Helena

Contact Helena

* Mandatory By submitting the form, RISE will process your personal data.