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Battery abuse tests in a reactor

Abuse testing of batteries for product development purposes or product approvals.


Our unique pressure vessel offers a cost efficient and quick method to evaluate gases released by batteries. It allows battery cells and battery assemblies to be safely tested to gather information needed to asses thermal propagation and explosion risks.

If requested, our vessel can be utilized to obtain UL 9540a approval for your product. This method was designed by UL to evaluate the fire characteristics of a battery energy storage system that undergoes thermal runaway. More information about this test standard can be found on UL's website.


Gas composition testing - Closed reactor

The standard method for determining the total volume of battery gas produced and the gas composition of those gases. Provides maximum pressure and temperatures in the vessel as well as temperature and voltage recordings for the test object. 

The sample is placed inside the reactor and then abused, typically through heating, until it goes into thermal runaway. Once this happens, the battery produces both gas and heat. The increase in pressure and temperature gives information on how much gas is released and at what speed. Then, gas samples are extracted from the vessel and analysed by a gas chromatograph to quantify permanent and volatile species such as O2, CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8, C4H10, and C5H12.

Gas composition testing - Open reactor

Continuous flow through the vessel which allows for the gas release rate to be measured directly from which the gas volume can be obtained. This method also allows for online measurement of species in the gas stream. This method is suited to both single cells, cell arrays and modules.

Analysis options

Gas chromatography: The standard gas measurement performed is with a micro-GC for the composition of hydrocarbons and permanents gases in the battery gas.

FTIR: The FTIR can be used to measure the composition of some hydrocarbons and toxic gases or HF.

Soot particle size analysis: Particle size measurements may be performed online by differential low-pressure impactor (DLPI) in the range of 15 µm to 0.03 µm (open reactor tests only). 

Analysis of soot particles: Analysis of particles on the impactor plate or particles inside the reactor can be performed with x-ray fluoresense (XRF) and ion chromatography.


Raw data for the measurements.

A test report presenting the outcomes of the offered tests, including results from the chemical analysis of gas sampling.

Product approval by UL (optional).

More information


Please contact the persons listed below.



Battery abuse tests in a reactor


Gas meters, Air flow / Gas flow, Thermometers, Pressure / Vacuum sensors

Metrology Area

Temperature, Pressure and vacuum, Volume and flow


Other Certifications

Innovation area

Batteries, Fire safety, Testing, Risk and safety


Custom tests for product development purposes.

UL 9540a


Price on tender

Delivery time

Normally 2-3 weeks after delivery of the test object.


The following information should be prepared:

  • Purpose of the tests, e.g. product development or approval in accordance with UL 9540a.
  • Description of the device under test (DUT)
  • Chemistry of the DUT, e.g. NMC or LFP
  • Capacity of the DUT, i.e. voltage and electric charge (Ah)
  • Dimensions or technical drawing of the test object
  • If and how the DUT should be charged.

More information

Franz Evegren

Contact person

Franz Evegren


+46 10 516 50 88

Read more about Franz

Contact Franz
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