Skip to main content
RISE logo

Efficient and carbon negative biojet fuels, is it possible? - potentials, costs

During bio-jet fuel production, carbon yields are often low and much of the raw material's carbon is emitted as CO2. But the future will place great demands on the efficient use of biogenic carbon and/or negative climate emissions. This project makes a systematic review of the possibilities to increase the utilization of the feedstock carbon.

In production processes for biofuels (eg aviation fuels) from biomass, only a limited fraction of the biomass' carbon atoms end up in the product. In most processes, a non-negligible proportion of the carbon atoms are emitted as carbon dioxide directly. In the short term, this means that the climate benefit of biofuels decreases because it contributes to the “carbon debt” that gives rise to a large part of the debate that exists about the sustainability of biofuels. In a longer perspective, emissions of carbon dioxide in the manufacturing process mean that the biomass is used more inefficiently than if all biogenic carbon atoms were included in products that replace e.g. fossil fuels. The technologies of the future for the conversion and utilization of biomass are expected to have a high utilization of the biomass of the biomass in order to be legitimate and competitive.

Capturing and storing some of the biomass raw material's carbon also provides an opportunity to produce carbon dioxide-negative bio-jet fuels. For air transport, carbon-negative fuels can also have a special significance due to the high-altitude effects which in some cases can have as great a climate impact as carbon dioxide emissions. Switching to renewable fuels does not affect the part of the climate impact caused by high-altitude effects, which means that flights with “normal” biofuels can sometimes only reduce the climate impact by half. With carbon dioxide-negative bio-aviation fuels, an opportunity is obtained to compensate for these high-altitude effects as well and thus achieve air transport with potentially no or little total climate impact.

This project aims to increase knowledge, quantitatively as well as qualitatively, about opportunities and challenges linked to increasing carbon efficiency in bio-aviation fuel production for a more efficient use of biomass and reduced climate impact. The project evaluates technical and economic possibilities and conditions for carbon dioxide storage (so-called BECCS, bio-energy carbon capture and storage) or carbon dioxide use (so-called BECCU, bio-energy carbon capture and utilization). Both thermochemical and biochemical production pathways are considered, as well as commercial as well as new technologies for carbon dioxide separation and biofuel production. The results will be relevant for pin-pointing technologies that are competitive in the long term. The data from the project is relevant in the short term (before implementation of BECCS / BECCU) to avoid the choice of technologies that do not have the opportunity to develop to high carbon efficiency.

Project results

Project report (pdf, 2.62 MB)


Project name

Efficient and carbon negative jet fuels



RISE role in project

Project manager

Project start


Until 2020-12-31

Total budget

595 kSEK


Neste, Luleå Tekniska Universitet


Energimyndigheten, f3 Swedish Knowledge Center for Renewable Fuels, Skyltmax


Project members

Supports the UN sustainability goals

7. Affordable and clean energy
Erik Furusjö

Contact person

Erik Furusjö


+46 10 228 45 67

Read more about Erik

Contact Erik
CAPTCHA This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.

* Mandatory By submitting the form, RISE will process your personal data.



Fossil-free fuels

The transport sector accounts for one-fifth of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. By 2045, Sweden aims to be one of the world's first fossil-free welfare countries and to have a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The red…


Our environmental impact is significantly reduced when we replace products made from fossil resources with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable resources such as raw materials and byproduct…

Broad expertise in biofuel and its value chains

The government has targeted a fossil-free Sweden by 2050. A major focus is the aviation industry since the jet fuel today almost exclusively is fossil based. At RISE, researchers develop methods and technical solutions to produce …

Oljehaltiga jästsvampar för produktion av flygbränsle från sågverksrester

Lågvärda rester från svenska sågverk och träindustri kan potentiellt tillgodose merparten av behovet av bio-baserat drivmedel för inhemsk flygtrafik. Projektet kommer att utveckla teknik för produktion av biodrivmedel via en socke…

Validation and demonstration of forest-based bio jet fuels, step 1

The project aims to de-risk an investment in a first commercial biojet fuel production facility and will prepare a demonstration of the entire value chain from forest to aircraft. This pre-project provides planning and costs for …

Flying on forest residues in Småland (FFS)

The project will develop knowledge regarding the feasibility of local bio jet fuel production in Småland and identify the most promising supply chain set-ups for the area. A quantitative and site-specific analysis of production te…

Forestry byproducts the aviation fuel of the future

Air traffic is responsible for releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide, with increasing passenger numbers placing high demands on technical solutions to reduce emissions. In collaboration with the aerospace industry, researchers…