We are experts in analysis of toxic fire gases according to standardised test methods, both for product development and according to various product certification protocols.
Fire smoke contains particulates and toxic gases and can from exposure delay egress and cause severe toxic effects. The smoke gas content from fires with different materials or products can be analysed using dedicated laboratory test method and advanced gas analysis equipment.
There are requirements on fire toxicity within the regulations for trains in Europe and for shipping internationally. The requirements are issued in EN 45545-2, respectively in the IMO FTP Code. The requirements are in both cases specified in tests according to EN ISO 5659-2 with FTIR-analysis. The parameters of concern are smoke opacity and the content of toxic fire gases.
The cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1) is often used in product development for measurement of ignition properties and heat release. The production of toxic fire gases can be determined within the same tests using FTIR based on the standard ISO/TS 21397. Tests with reduced oxygen atmosphere can be conducted according to ISO/TS 5660-5.
The production of fire gases is governed by the prevailing fire conditions. The parameters deciding the conditions include: type of combustion (non-flaming or flaming), temperature, and oxygen availability (i.e. ventilation). Especially the degree of ventilation is difficult to control in the test methods introduced above. In a detailed investigation of toxic fire gas production, one could instead used the tube furnace method ISO/TS 19700. This method provides prolonged controlled and stable combustion conditions in the test.
The different test methods for fire fire toxicity referred to above have been assessed for tests with insulation materials. You can find the RISE-report here.
ISO 19702:2015, Guidance for sampling and analysis of toxic gases and vapours in fire effluents using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
ISO/TS 21397:2021, FTIR analysis of fire effluents in cone calorimeter tests
ISO/TS 5660-5:2020, Reaction-to-fire tests -- Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate -- Part 5: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method) and smoke production rate (dynamic measurement) under reduced oxygen atmospheres
ISO/TS 19700:2016, Controlled equivalence ratio method for the determination of hazardous components of fire effluents — Steady-state tube furnace