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MODULIT Monolithically Integrated Energy Storage Modules

Cost is the main hindrance to a wider implementation of electrochemical energy storage. MODULIT aimed at reducing manufacturing costs of electrochemical energy storage systems by integrating modules and systems monolithically instead of integrating discrete components. Further, MODULIT developed cellulose-based energy storage materials.

The bearing concept in MODULIT was borrowed from microelectronics. Since the early 1960’s, the development of microelectronics has been driven by monolithic integration as manufacturing scheme. In monolithic integration materials for many parts and components are deposited and patterned at the same time in batch processes on a common substrate typically silicon wafers for electronics. Monolithic integration has revolutionized not only the entire electronics industry, but the most aspects of modern society. The vision behind MODULIT was to reduce integration costs for electrochemical energy storage, and to realize this using printing as materials deposition method, in other words; to print electrodes, interconnects and balancing components on one and the same substrate.

Another aspect of the MODULIT project was to use renewable materials to the extent possible. To this end, redox-functionalized cellulose aerogel particles were developed.

Modelling of supercapacitors and balanced supercapacitor modules was an important part of the project. In MODULIT, models describing electrochemical components, supercapacitor cells and electrochemical transistors, parts of circuits for protecting and balancing the module, as well as the whole module, can be modelled in a common model platform, modified SPICE-models. This offers a unique possibility of predicting and modelling of modules for specific load and balancing cases.


Project name




RISE role in project

Main applicant and coordinator

Project start


4 years

Total budget



KTH, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Mittuniversitetet, Linköping University, RISE Bioeconomy, RISE SICS-East


Swedish Energy Agency

Project website



Supports the UN sustainability goals

7. Affordable and clean energy