On of the most important challenges of the age is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. RISE is studying where and how carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be applied in a cost-effective manner in process industries. The working theory is that a cost reduction of at least 20% can be achieved.
There are a number of tools available to energy-intensive process industries seeking to reduce CO2 emissions; increased utilisation of solar, wind and bio-based energy, energy efficiency measures and carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The CO2stCap project is now in its third year of studying where and how partial CO2 capture can be implemented in a cost-effective manner in high-emission industries, with the emphasis on cement, paper and pulp, steel and ferroalloys. “So far, the project is showing promising results,” says Anna-Karin Jannasch, focus area manager for industrial transformation at RISE.
“The project has contributed to developing updated, calibrated and validated tools for the techno-economic analysis and cost analysis of CO2 capture in various industrial sectors using residual heat,” she explains.
RISE studies pulp and paper industry
Among RISE’s contributions to the project is a study of the technical prerequisites for CO2 capture in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. Here, emissions are mostly biogenic in nature, unlike the cement and steel industries where emissions are largely fossil based.
“The use of CCS technology to capture and store carbon dioxide from biomass emissions in particular is highly topical and is an important step towards achieving negative emissions, or carbon sinks,” says Anna-Karin Jannasch. “In simple terms, this means reduced emissions to compensate for fossil emissions.”
However, according to Jens Wolf of RISE, who is carrying out techno-economic calculations in the project, capturing green carbon dioxide is far from a foregone conclusion. This is because it is much cheaper to simply release them into the atmosphere.
“The price of emission permits is very low, making it viable for anyone at all to purchase them rather than taking measures. Although carbon dioxide capture is an expensive technology, it is a necessary step towards meeting the undertakings of the Paris Agreement on climate action,” he explains.
“Capturing and storing carbon is deemed to have great potential for future reductions in global emissions but, in order to achieve this, industry must invest in the technology,” says Jens Wolf. The CO2st Cap project will contribute to this end with both cost analyses and other knowledge. Jens Wolf sees RISE. with its gathering of diverse expertise, becoming a link between industry, academia and policy makers.
“Within RISE we have specialists in almost every field. It will be beneficial if we can become a strong partner in creating the necessary foundation for systems of control that lead to a more sustainable society,” he concludes.
Planned to run for four years, CO2stCap is financed by CLIMIT-Demo, the Swedish Energy Agency and participating industry and research partners. The work is being conducted by SINTEF Industry (coordinator), the University of South-Eastern Norway (USN), Chalmers University of Technology, Swerea MEFOS and RISE in close collaboration with industry partners such as Elkem, SSAB, Norcem and AGA Gas, as well as the Clobal CCS Institute and IEA Environmental Projects.